Dictionary of Photography terms:

We have prepared the dictionary of photographer terms below carefully for the readers of en.fotografmania.com. In the dictionary, you can find all the phrases that come to mind when you say Photo, terms and meanings of photography, camera terms, concepts related to photography, etc.

Adobe RGB: A color space used in commercial printing processes. It has a wider color range than sRGB. The wider color range will help you easily edit photos on the computer.

What is AE (Automatic Expesure)? : It means automatic exposure. Taking into account the lighting conditions of the camera, it is the correct exposure for the ideal photo.

AEB (Automatic Exposure Scanning): This feature; It automatically captures several images at different exposures to help you capture an accurately exposed image.

AE-L (Auto Exposure Lock): Auto exposure lock. When the lock is unlocked, the camera memorizes the current light values ​​and stores them until the photo is taken.

AF (Auto Focus): The camera focuses on the subject to be shot when the shutter button is pressed halfway.

AF-L (Auto Focus Lock): Autofocus (focus) lock. When autofocus is done, the distance is locked.

Analog: It is called non-digital systems in terms of image or sound. It also means non-digital.

APS-C (Advance Photo System – C): Approximately 50% less than 35mm film (or full frame sensor) in area; It is a 23.6 x 15.8mm digital camera sensor. The cutting multiplier ranges from 1.5-1.7x.

APS-H (Advance Photo System – H): Used in Canon 1D series (except 1Ds) and some models of Leica; It is a sensor type with dimensions of 29.2 x 20.2 mm. It is smaller than full-frame sensors larger than APS-C. The cutting factor is 1.3x.

Aperture: Diaphragm. The part that adjusts the amount of light that will open, dim, and reach the film or sensor.

Asa (American Standards Association): It is a standard unit of American origin that shows the sensitivity of analog camera film to light. Nowadays it is called ISO in Digital machines.

Aspherical Lens: Refers to non-circular lens element. Circular lens with smoothed edges expresses the lens shape. With this type of lenses, it is aimed to drop the rays to the desired extent to the desired place.

Autofocus: Automatically focusing on the subject of the camera. The shutter button must be pressed halfway to focus.

Automatic exposure: It is a system that means that the machine automatically makes the most suitable exposure in the current light conditions.

AWB (Automatic White Balance): Automatically adjusts the white balance during exposure while shooting.

Bayonet (mouth): It is the name given to the lens connecting parts of cameras that can change the DSLR or mirrorless lens. The lens is the mouth. Each brand is different and therefore its lenses cannot be used in different brands.

Bokeh: It is the blur on the front or back of the photographed object. It can take different shapes according to the diaphragm leaves in the lenses.

Brightness: Refers to white areas (and the multiplicity of these areas) in an image. The value of each pixel in a digital image, from black to white. If the black value is 0, the white value is 255, it will be brighter.

Bracketing?: The camera automatically takes the same frame in 3 to 5 bursts. Shoots with different less than many exposures in each shot. As a result, 3-5 photos are taken and the desired ideal photo is selected from them. Or HDR photos are created by combining all the photos.

Bulb: On cameras, it is the value that keeps the screen open as long as the shutter is held down. Photographs are taken all this time. It is used at night or in low light conditions. Bulb (B) is activated only in Manual (M) mode.

Buffer memory: It is the place where the cameras store the data (photos) that they collect before they write to the memory card. The data is written to the buffer of the machine first and then to the memory card. The large buffer memory increases the ability of the machine.

What is Chromatic aberration (CA) ?: Color deviation. It is generally called white bright colors to play purple. While the red green and blue rays passing through the lens should focus on a single point, they focus on different places due to the different color temperatures. Thus, undesirable color differences can occur.

Camera: It is the Photography Machine itself.

CCD (Charged Coupled Device): It is one of two basic sensor types. It is an older technology.

Center-Weighted (Center-weighted metering mode): It is the mode of light metering from the center of the frame.

CF (Compact Flash): It is a form of memory card. Although it is one of the first card types, some companies have used it until recently. It is more voluminous than sd card.

Close-Up filter: These are optical elements that are mounted in front of the lenses for close-up shooting. It allows the lens to approach the object by reducing the minimum focusing distance. It is used for macro photography.

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor): It is one of the two basic sensor types with CCD. It is a newer technology.

Continuous Autofocus: Continuous autofocus when you press the shutter button halfway. The camera is locked to an object while the shutter-release button is being made, wherever the subject moves, autofocus follows.

Contrast: The light value between the brightest place and the moment in an image in an image. The greater the contrast, the whites appear whiter whites whiter blacks.

Color space: The sensor represents the space of colors that can be used for print or monitor. The most commonly used today are sRGB and Adobe RGB color spaces.

Color Temperature: The measure of light sources indicated by Kelvin. If it is cold, it is blue and if it is hot, yellow is dominant.

Distortion: An optical shift that causes the edges of the captured image to appear curled outward or inward. It has 3 types as horizontal, vertical and diagonal.

Diaphragm: It is the mechanism that adjusts the amount of light that will fall on the sensor or film. It is located on the lens.

Digital Camera: It is a digital technology camera. It also means non-analog.

What is Dynamic Range? The tonal difference between the brightest and darkest surfaces in a photo. Toning range.

What is (DoF) Depth of Field? : It is the clear area formed in front and behind with the focused object.

DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex): These are digital versions of SLR machines that work with digital system. Refers to digital single lens reflex machine.

EV (Exposure value) Compensation: This is an intervention to change the exposure value suggested by the camera so that the photos are darker or lighter. +1 house can be used to make the photo brighter than usual, and -1 house can be used to make it darker than usual.

EVF (Electronic Vinewfinder-viewer): It is a type of viewfinder that replaces the optical viewfinder, especially used in mirrorless cameras. A small LCD screen with the image that we look at the camera with one eye.

What is shutter speed ?: It is the mechanism that controls the light falling on the sensor or film in time. It allows the curtain to open and close for the time it is set. Sets the duration of the exposure.

EXIF ​​(Exchangeable image file format): Into a photo; information such as which camera, which lens, when, at which aperture or shutter speed the photo was taken.

Exposure: It refers to the amount of light falling on the sensor (or film). The right exposure can only be made by combining the right aperture + right shutter + correct ISO values.

Exposure compensation: (EV -Exposure value Compensation): This is an intervention to change the exposure value suggested by the camera so that the photos are darker or lighter. +1 house can be used to make the photo brighter than usual, and -1 house can be used to make it darker than usual.

Extension Tube: These are electronic or only mechanical tubes that are placed between the camera and the lens, reducing the minimum and maximum focusing distance of the lens. It is especially used in macro photography. However, they cannot replace a macro lens because they also reduce the maximum focusing distance of the lens, so they do not allow shooting other than close-up.

Filter: Filters made of materials such as glass or plastic allow the light that reaches the surface of the sensor (or film) to be replaced. It is used to capture different tones, create special effects and reduce reflections.

Fish Eye: These are the types of lenses that have much more viewing angles than normal. They make optical image illusions. They have more viewing angles than wide angle lenses.

Fixed aperture: Variable focus lenses do not change aperture values ​​even if their focus changes. For example, the minimum aperture of the 24-105mm lens is f4 at 24mm and f4 at 105mm.

Fixed-focus lens (prime lens): These are lenses whose focal lengths do not change. Image quality is better than zoom lenses. For example, a 50mm f1.8 lens is a prime lens.

Flash: It is a light source that instantly illuminates the exposed environment during the photo shoot. They can be attached to the camera as well as externally.

Flash sync speed (Flash Sync): The maximum shutter speed that the camera can shoot simultaneously with the flash. While this speed is generally at mediocre (about 1/200) values ​​in the flash built in Maki; It can go up to 1/8000 in external flashes with hss feature.

Focus : It is the adjustment of the distance between the parts of an optical system in order to reach maximum clarity.

Focus Assist Light: It is the light (usually red) given at the front of the machine for the correct focus in environments with low amount of light.

Focus distance: Refers to the distance from the lens where the lens lowers the incident light. It is expressed in millimeters (mm) and is the most prominent feature of the lenses.

Focus Lock: It is a feature that allows locking of the focused subject. This usually happens when you press the shutter button halfway.

FPS (Frame Per Second) : The number of photos that can be taken per second.

Full Frame: As in 35mm films, it is called the size of the sensor in standard 24x36mm dimensions. Machines with this sensor are also called full frame machines.

Gray Card: Used to make white balance correct. the front is composed of gray reflecting 18% of the white light and the back is composed of surfaces reflecting 90% of the white light.

Gren (Grain): These are unwanted dots in a photograph. Although it is a term used for films on anolog machines, the word noise is used for today’s DSLR.

Golden Hour: It is the red-yellow riot formed in the sky after the sun sets or before the sun rises. Enlightenment becomes more homogeneous when light comes directly into the object’s object.

HDR (High Dynamic Range): It is the technique of creating details in bright and dark areas in one photo at the same time in high contrast frames. Although it is not possible with a single shot, the frames taken with steps are obtained by combining them with the programs. It is obtained in a single square with both unexploded bright areas and dark places without texture. Thus, very high photographs are formed.

What is Hyperfocal Distance ?: It is the closest point where the sharpness is not disturbed by approaching from the infinity towards the camera. It should generally be known for landscape shots. However, most of the accounts remained only in theory, they said by underlining the photograph masters.

Histogram: It is the graph of milk used to measure the light intensity in the exposed environment. The fact that the graphic tends to the left is dark, and the right to the right is a sign that the photo is bright.

Horizontal framing: It is a framing form where the width is more than the height.

H.264 / MPEG-4: High compression video format created by international standard institutions ISO-IEC and ITU-T. The low bit rate developed by the joint Video Team (JVT) also offers good video quality.

Image Sensor: Digital sensor of cameras. It is the section that is sensitive to light and enables the image to be created in digital cameras. Also called sensor.

Image Stabilization (Vibration reduction-blocking): It is a system placed on lenses or machines to prevent unwanted movement when taking pictures. Thanks to these systems, it is possible to take pictures manually at low shutter speeds.

IQ (Image Quality): It means “photo quality”. It may vary from person to person; it has no specific definition.

ISO (International Standarts Organization): It is the rating expressing the sensitivity of the sensors in digital cameras to light. With the rise of ISO in digital machines, the quality of the photo decreases. However, in film analog machines, the number series that shows the sensitivity of the film to light means. And even if the value rises, the quality does not change. The old use name is ASA.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group): Also referred to as JPG. It is the most widely used photo file format. It allows the photograph to be preserved by compressing 4, 8 or 16 layers.

Fast lens: The name given to lenses with aperture value of f2.8 or less. These types of lenses allow more shutter speeds because they can collect more light than others, so they are called “fast”.

Framing: Refers to all the elements included in the photograph taken by the photographer.

Lens: Refers to the lens attached to the camera, or the glass inside the lenses.

Lens hood (Sunshade-hood): It is a cylindrical piece that is attached to the end of the lens to prevent unwanted lights from falling on the lens during exposure.

Light meter: It is the device used to measure the amount of light reflected from the subject while exposure. It is done automatically in today’s machines.

Live preview: The image reaching the sensor is reflected directly on the screen of the machine.

Macro Lens: This is the type of lens that has a magnification ratio of 1: 1 and above, to reflect the actual dimensions of the objects being shot on the sensor.

Mirror Locking: In DSLR mirror reflex cameras, the mirror is locked so that the movement of the mirror does not have a negative effect on the photograph when taking pictures.

Monopod: It is an apparatus consisting of one foot in the shape of a stick, on which the camera is fixed, in order to reduce vibration when taking pictures.

Mount (Bayonet): It is the name given to the lens connecting parts of cameras that can change the DSLR or mirrorless lens. The lens is the mouth. Each brand is different and therefore its lenses cannot be used in different brands.

MP (Megapixel): Digital resolution unit consisting of 1 million pixels.

Multiple exposur: 2 or more exposures to the same photo frame.

Natural Density filter (ND filter): It is a type of filter that allows the photo to be taken in a longer time by absorbing the light entering the lens in front of it in certain proportions. It is used for shooting partly moving elements such as waterfall or cloud.

NEF (Nikon Electronic Format): RAW file format used by Nikon.

Noise: It can also be called sandblasting. Pixels that do not give the correct image. It usually occurs in low light environments.

NTSC (National Television System Committee): A video color coding used in Japan, North America, the Philippines, South America, South Korea and Taiwan.

Numerical zoom: The action of magnifying the subject or object with a software used in cameras. Image loss occurs.

Optical Zoom (Zooming in / out): If the camera takes the nail polish, it zooms with the lens movements on the lens. It can approach without any loss of image like in digital zoom.

OSS (Optical Steady Shot): Image stabilization system (Sony).

Overexposure: Indicates that the photo is brighter than its natural (original) state.

Panoramic photography (Panorama): It is the technique of taking photos of each other in multiple frames and then merging them with the machine itself or with the help of programs. Saki seems to be taking a wide angle photo. It is often used in landscape photographs.

PAL (Phase Alternative Line): Video color coding used in many countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East.

Paralax Error: The frame that the viewfinder and lens see is not the same. Cameras that make up this error are not optical mirrors but mirrored (DSLRs). They use a simple optical gusset in the upper right or left corner of the machine. Since the image from the perspective is not related to the lens, they see a slightly different area.

Pentaprism: It is a glass prism that passes through the lens and comes to the mirror and sends the image from there to the optical lens.

Pentamirror: It is a system of mirrors that passes through the lens and sends the image that comes to the mirror and from there to the optical view. It is cheaper in cost than pentaprism, but the image will be slightly darker.

Pixel: The smallest unit that creates a digital image. All pixels together represent the resolution. An image of 16 mega pixels has 16 million pixels.

Prime Lens (Fixed focus lens): These are lenses whose focal lengths do not change. Image quality is better than zoom lenses. For example, a 50mm f1.8 lens is a prime lens.

Rangefinder: the mean is “telemetry” or “distance meter”. It is the system used by Leica-like machines today.

RAW file? These are uncompressed ‘uncooked’ photo files. They store all the information generated in the camera sensor. For example, the Jpeg format is compressed and (although we don’t notice) it has lost some data.

Reflex Camera (Single Lens Reflex / SLR): It is the name given to the machines where the image reflected on the film is exactly the same as the image seen through the viewfinder. The image passes through the lens and comes to the optical viewfinder simultaneously with the help of a mirror

RGB (Red Green Blue): It is a color model created with “Red, Green and Blue” shades.

Saturation: Expresses the saturation of colors in the photo or image.

Sepia: It is a kind of effect obtained by applying brown tones to the photo.

Shutter Button: It is the button that must be pressed to take the picture.

Shutter (snapshot): The mechanism by which the light falling on the sensor (or film) is controlled in time.

Sunshade (Lens Hood): It is a cylindrical part that is attached to the end of the lens to prevent unwanted lights from falling on the lens during exposure.

Spot measurement mode: It is the measurement mode in which the light is calculated only from a small point.

sRGB (Standart RGB): It is an international standard created by IEC (national electronic commission) to define the color gap. It is widely used to create colors on computer monitors. It should be preferred for publications in internet environments.

Teleconverter: These are the adapters that are used to increase the focal lengths of the lenses, which contain an optical element and are mounted between the camera and the lens. Due to the optical element, the aperture value changes with the focal point. For example, when a 1.4x teleconverter is attached to a 200mm lens, the focal length increases to 280mm. But the diaphragm will be narrowed further.

Telephoto Lens: Usually called lenses with a focal length over 50mm. These lenses are also known as “narrow angles.”

Tripod: It is a camera base consisting of three legs.

TTL (Through-The-Lens): It is the system where light measurement is made with the light coming from the lens.

UV Filter: The name given to the filter that does not pass ultra-violet rays from the sun.

Vibration reduction (is-vr-oos-vc): It is a system placed on lenses or cameras to prevent unwanted movement while taking pictures. Thanks to these systems, it is possible to take pictures manually at low shutter speeds.

Viewfinder (Vizor): Optical or electronic systems that allow the monitoring of the area to be photographed on cameras. It is a relatively small screen where we follow the subject with our eyes when we rest our face on the machine for shooting.

Vignette (Corner blackening): Blackening in the corners of the image taken. It is caused by the inability of the lenses to drop light on the corners of the sensor. Sometimes it is also used to give effects to photos.

Viewing angle: It refers to the part of a lens that it drops on the sensor. Tele lenses offer less viewing angles, while fisheye lenses offer a lot of viewing angles.

White Balance: It is available to adjust the colors as accurately as possible according to the light provided by the environment while taking the photograph. It is made to balance the “temperature” of the light in the environment.

Wide angle: Usually used for focal distances below 50mm. For example 35mm.

Zoom: It is the change of the focal length of the lens. Therefore, the object can be approached and moved away.

Zoom Lens (Varifocal lens): Focal lengths can be changed; therefore, they are lenses that can zoom in and out of the subject.


In the above dictionary where I try to compile the meanings of the terms of photography; Please report any errors or deficiencies that may have occurred in the comments.